Nursing Theories

Junior (College 3rd year) ・Nursing ・APA ・4 Sources

Nursing is considered as a means to providing patients with caring love in which curative factors can be improved (Erickson, 2017). Developing an understanding of the various factors that promote the creation of strong interpersonal relationship paves way for realization of a successful relationship between the nurse and the client (Baldwin et al., 2014). As such, communication plays a vital role in determining the kind of relationship that will be formed between the nurse leader and the rest of the team, and also between the patient and the nurse. The paper seeks to examine Erickson’s model of modeling and role modeling and human caring theory by Jean Piaget in relation to the nurse bullying.

Modeling and Role Modeling

The modeling and role modeling theory, which was developed by Mary Ann P. Swain, Evelyn M. Tomlin, and Hellen C. Erickson (Erickson, 2017). In this model, researchers consider the theory as the philosophy of learning which enables nurses to nurture and care for each client with respect and awareness for each individual. As such, it proposes for respecting each person’s uniqueness in which theory-based clinical practice is exemplified by focusing on the needs of the clients. The model is derived from Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs by drawing concepts from three other theories: the General Adaptation Syndrome proposed by Selye and Lazarus, psychological stages by Erik Erickson, and Cognitive development by Piaget (Baldwin et al., 2014).

In explication of the theory, the proponents examine the commonalities and differences that exist among people that contribute to modeling and role modeling within nursing (Erickson, 2017). Notably, some of the commonalities the theory proposes are the basic needs, cognitive stages, affiliated individualism, holism, psychosocial stages, and attachment and loss. The differences that exist among people are the self-care action, inherent endowment, self-care knowledge, adaptation potential, stress, among other factors (Baldwin et al., 2014).

Based on the theory, modeling is considered to be the process through which the nurses seek to understand each client’s personal needs within his or her world (Baldwin et al., 2014). As the nurse learns these qualities, he or she learns to respect and appreciate the value of the model held by the client and its importance. In modeling, each person is recognized as to having unique perspectives regarding their own world and therefore enables the nurse to use the model in developing an image by which he or she will understand the client’ world from the perspective of the patient.

On the other hand, role modeling entails a process in which the nurse nurtures and facilitates the clients in attaining, promoting, and maintaining health by accepting the client’s condition by allowing unique planning (Baldwin et al., 2014). In this concept, the client is considered as the expert in this case and has the upper hand in understanding what is best and the proper way for him or her to be helped.

The Erickson model of modeling and role modeling can be applied in nursing to alleviate nurse bullying in a number of ways (Erickson, 2017). In nursing, the nurses are charged with the mandate to nurture the health of the patients through facilitation and unconditional acceptance of the condition of the patient and the perceptions of the clients. In an attempt to prevent nurse bullying, there are various goals of nursing including promoting client’s control through information sharing, building of trust between the nurse and the clients, and within the nursing team.

In nursing, bullying can be experienced in different levels (Baldwin et al., 2014). That is, the nurse leader may put the nurses under extreme pressure that will result in work related stress and therefore inhibit the job performance capability of the nurses. Also, the nurses can be bullied by the clients in regard to the care they receive and therefore influence the dedication of the nursed to their job (Erickson, 2017).

In resolution of such challenges, the nurses can put into practice the theory of modeling and role modeling proposed by Erickson (Baldwin et al., 2014). As a nurse, understanding the commonalities between the nurse and the client reduces the tension when caring for the patient. In fact, setting mutual and health directed goals allows the nurse to prevent the nurse bullying in which it will be possible to promote the interpersonal relationship within the nursing practice.

Theory of Human Caring

The theory of human caring was developed by Jean Watson and is majorly concerned with how nurses ought to care for the patients and how the caring will progress into a better plan in promoting wellness and health, illness prevention, and health restoration (Brewer & Watson, 2015). According to the theory, Watson holds that nursing has to be concerned with taking care of the sick, by focusing on promoting health, diseases treatment, and making simple medical cures (Sitzman & Watson, 2013). Also, the model holds that caring can be practiced and demonstrated by nursing in order to promote growth, and creating a caring environment in which the nurses accepts who the person is and reflects on what he or she has or may become (Brewer & Watson, 2015). In the model, seven assumptions based on the mode. Firstly, he proposes that caring is made up of curative factors that result in the satisfaction on the needs of the clients. Secondly, he assumes that a science of caring complements the curing. Also, caring as a practice is critical to the nursing practice. Moreover, the effectiveness in caring results in promotion of the individual and family health and growth (Brewer & Watson, 2015).

Lastly, the major concepts of the theory are outlined to be health, society or environment, nursing, and human being. The society determines how the nurses should behave by providing values for setting goals that they should strive towards (Sitzman & Watson, 2013). In regard to the society and the caring theory, Watson proposes that caring has for long time existed within each society in which someone by developing an attitude that is transmitted from one generation to another. Therefore, the norms and values promote a unique way for coping with the environment.

The human being factor explore the manner in which a person needs to be cared for, nurtured, understood, assisted, respected, and a philosophical perspective in which an individual develops a fully functional and an integrated self (Brewer & Watson, 2015). Therefore, the nurses need to consider the human being as more than simply the sum total of the individual parts.

The health factor is termed as the harmony and unity within the body, mind, and soul in which there is a congruence between the self-experienced and the self-perceived (Brewer & Watson, 2015). As such, it contributes to the maintenance of the proper functioning a absence of illnesses that promotes high level mental, social, and physical functioning that leads to absence if illness. Lastly, nursing is considered as the human factor that brings about a mediation among professional, scientific, ethical, personal, and aesthetic human transactions (Brewer & Watson, 2015).

In the nursing sector, human caring model can be applied by nurses in a number of fronts to mediate the nurse bullying menace that exists within the practice. In the nursing process as observed by Watson, the scientific stages involving assessment, evaluation, planning, and intervention can be streamlined to ensure that the plan created takes into consideration the needs of the nurses (Sitzman & Watson, 2013). In fact, the care plan is made in such a way that the intervention and implementation considers the individual unique traits of the nurses in relation to those of the clients. As a result, the nurses operate according to the greater understanding of the curative factors. Furthermore, the ethical concepts embodied in the model promotes caring love that the simple holistic care equips the nurses with improved means to address various aspects. Besides, the nurses become aware of the increased guidelines for management of increased generality and health-illness phenomena (Brewer & Watson, 2015).

Moreover, the nurses engage interpersonal communication through examining the ethical and social norms under this model to apply in the nursing practice. Consequently, in practice, it can also be observed that nurses fail to communicate effective with the patients and therefore may be misunderstood and hence the bullying (Sitzman & Watson, 2013). However, promoting effective communication through understanding the human factor, social setting, and the essence of a healthy self, it becomes possible to create a relationship with the client in which all the critical factors are featured.


Conclusively, as observed, the modelling and role modelling theory by Erickson refers to the model in which the nurses provide care based on the commonalities and differences among the people (Erickson, 2017). The theory is derived from the theory of General Adaptation Syndrome, cognitive development, hierarchy of needs, and psychosocial stages to explain the uniqueness of the client’s needs which are to be respected and appreciated. The model further considers nursing as the self-care approach to the client’s perception of the stressors and adaptation to these stressors (Erickson, 2017). In the same manner, the human caring theory proposed by Jean Watson examines the moral and philosophical perspective of nursing through explication of three fundamental factor which encompasses the health and illness phenomena (Brewer & Watson, 2015). As such, the model addresses the promotion of health, illness prevention, and increment of generality for betterment of curative factors in which the nurses are provided with guidelines on how to offer patient care (Brewer & Watson, 2015). Lastly, the two models discussed have demonstrated that understanding of the commonalities and identification of the assumptions creates a framework through which logical plans can be developed. Development of nontechnical and no sophisticated plans creates a moral compass that the nurses are to follow and therefore minimize the instances of nurse bullying. As a result, the nurses gain the understanding of the values and norms within the society that govern human interaction and how care has to be provided in the process (Sitzman & Watson, 2013).


Baldwin, A., Mills, J., Birks, M., & Budden, L. (2014). Role modeling in undergraduate nursing education: An integrative literature review. Nurse education today, 34(6), e18-e26.
Brewer, B. B., & Watson, J. (2015). Evaluation of authentic human caring professional practices. Journal of Nursing Administration, 45(12), 622-627.
Erickson, M. E. (2017). Modeling and role-modeling. Nursing Theorists and Their Work-E-Book, 398.
Sitzman, K., & Watson, J. (2013). Caring science, mindful practice: Implementing Watson's human caring theory. Springer Publishing Company.

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