Tourism and hospitality

Junior (College 3rd year) ・Business ・APA ・4 Sources

The cultural, economic, and social effects of hospitality and tourism on local, state, and federal levels continue to pique the interest of both public and private entities. The industry oversells the economic advantages of tourism for a number of reasons. Evidently, governments work to attract tourists to their areas because of the advantages it has for their economy. Additionally, a welcoming nation tends to entice more tourists. In order to better understand how important each is to the other, this essay will analyze and contrast the economic, cultural, and social effects of tourism in China and Malaysia. Hospitality and tourism have enormous impacts on the social and economic development of any country, and it opens up businesses, capital investment, entrepreneurialism, and trade, while it also creates jobs and protects the heritage as well as the cultural values of a region. Governments must access the appropriate data to comprehend the effects fully. Regarding the global economy, tourism produced approximately US$7.6 trillion and around 277 million jobs in 2014. This represents 10 percent of the global GDP and 1 out of every 11 jobs respectively. Recently, the industry has been growing faster than other sectors like healthcare, financial services, and automotive (Keyang, 2013).

It is worth noting that tourism can only survive with the assistance from the respective communities. In other words, if a community is hospitable, it is bound to attract more tourists, especially if the region has enticing sites. The tourism business depends broadly on one another and the residents, government, and other businesses. This is because the benefits also reach almost everyone residing within the region. Before analyzing these aspects, it is vital to comprehend the background of each region.

Tourism in China

According to 2010 statistics, China was the most toured country across the globe with an estimated number of 55.98 million tourists from overseas. The industry has significantly expanded over the years, particularly since the start of the reform and opening. The World Tourism Organization predicts that China will be the leading tourists' attraction by the year 2020. In the year 2010, the country gained roughly $45.8 billion, which was the fourth largest in the world. From these figures, local tourism contributed 1.61 billion Yuan while 777.1 billion emanated from overseas, tourists. Some of the most visited sites include The Great Wall of China, and The Forbidden City both in Beijing, The Yellow Mountains situated in Huangshan, Giant Pandas in Chengdu, West Lake located in Hangzhou, The Bund in Shanghai, The Li River in Guilin, and The Terracotta Army in Xi’an. Chinese medicine is another source of attraction. People from different cultures have embraced Chinese medicine in several aspects. The practice entails a complex system that consists of herbal medicine, breathing therapy, acupuncture, lifestyle and dietary. It also consists of theoretical frameworks that are utilized in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of the people seeking the same. Apart from that, the frameworks work to identify the symptoms. The natural aspects of this practice entice huge populations who visit the region, even though the services can be offered elsewhere (Nekolaichuk, 2010).

Tourism in Malaysia

The tourism industry in Malaysia has also seen significant improvements over the years and is currently ranked 9th in the entire globe. The need to improve tourism was propelled by the fact that Malaysia was solely dependent on exports. Similar to China, medical tourism is a fundamental aspect of many people coming from overseas seeking aid in the region. For instance, in the years 2013 and 2014, the country recorded 881,000 and 882,000 respectively medical tourists. Other tourist attraction sites include George Town, Kuantan, Malacca City, Miri, and Petaling Jaya among other sites including islands and beaches (Nekolaichuk, 2010).

Social Impacts of Hospitality and Tourism

Social impacts of tourism and hospitality refer to the societal member’s perception, attitude, behavior, and beliefs as far as tourism and hospitality are concerned. The growth of the tourism and hospitality industry in both Malaysia and China have produced significant social impacts on the living conditions of the two countries. The social implications as a result of tourism and hospital have produced both positive and negative results to the two countries. On the other hand, the perception of the people with regards to tourism can be either be regarded as positive or negative depending on how the natives view. The interaction between the tourists and the true citizens of both Malaysia and China is responsible for the social impacts experienced in the two countries (Tan Khee Giap, 2016). 

Tourism and hospitality have benefitted China to a larger extent. The tourism sector has improved the quality of services offered as a result of tourism activities. Moreover, the quality of service in the tourism industry has improved as a result of the hospitality sector. For instance, in China, improvement in the tourism and hospitality industry has necessitated improvements in infrastructure together with the introduction and amendments of the leisure amenities. The amenities have played a significant role in improving the quality of life of the natives. Moreover, the improvement in social amenities led to an improvement in the welfare status of the citizens as symbolized by the increase in healthcare facilities and education instruments with respect to the tourism sector (Tan Khee Giap, 2016). 

In a bid to improve the tourism sector, the natives of China have sought to mechanisms that enable them to generate income such as preservation of culture. Although preservation of culture is perceived to be an income generation activity in the country of China, the practice has played a significant role in developing and maintaining the country’s heritage that could have faded as a result of lack of tourism and hospitality industry. The country of China has heavily depended and gained civic pride due to the high tourism activities in the country. On the other hand, the hospitality industry has recorded an increase in the training and incorporation of new trends in the catering and traveling sectors as part of the larger industry. 

The aim of the improvement in the hospitality industry is to facilitate and ensure the tourists feel at ease and well served; this leads to increase satisfaction and admiration of the country’s facilities and services hence an increase in the number of tourists visiting the country. Similarly, the country of Malaysia has experienced an increase in the number of tourists visiting the country due to the improvement in the hospitality sector. Just like the country of China, Malaysia has beautiful natural beaches that serve to suit the requisites of the tourists while ensuring there is an improvement in infrastructures such as roads, hospitals, educational institutions and hotels to aid in the welfare of both the locals and the visitors. Furthermore, the interactions between the natives and the tourists have led to better understanding of the cultural and social trends between the two people, especially in Malaysia. Moreover, the interaction between the natives and the tourists has led to the creation of awareness on issues related to poverty eradication, human rights and the girl-child education that has been of great concern in many Asian countries.

Albeit the tourism and hospitality sector have played a pivotal role in the improving the social status of the people both in the Chinese country and Malaysia, the industry has also jeopardized varied elements in the society. Despite the tourists being visitors in both China and Malaysia, their behavior has been detrimental to the cultural and social values of the people residing in the two countries respectively. In both China and Malaysia, the presence of tourists has led to an increase in the number of people residing in the town centers and localities adjacent to the tourist centers. The congestion of the towns adjacent to the tourist centers in return led to the displacement of people especially in Malaysian beaches and adjacent areas. Moreover, the congestion has played an important role in intermarriage between the visitors and the natives. The intermarriage has intensified the erosion of the native’s culture, and in return, it has degraded the country’s heritage.

The increasing number of visitors who dwell in the Chinese tourist attraction areas has also rendered a majority of the people jobless since the available jobs are subjected to the scrambling of the available jobs between the natives and the dwelling people of a foreign origin. As a result, the increasing number of unemployed in the Chinese country has led to an increase in robbery and theft since the large population of the unemployed sort to result in queer means so as to survive. Also, the interaction between the visitors and the natives has led to the increase in drug abuse, a situation that is more rampant in China as compared to Malaysia. However, there is an increasing rate of prostitution in both Malaysia and China as a result of the interactions (Tan Khee Giap, 2016).

Economic Impacts of Hospitality and Tourism

Over the past years, Malaysia has become a tourist destination attracting many people from across the globe. As per the Malaysian Health care Travel Council, the number of people coming into the country in search of health increased by a margin of 49.2 percent between 2007 and 2012. Moreover, the country showed an increased economic development through the increase in GDP. In that regard, as the income increases, the spending also increases as many people seek the services. Malaysians spent close to RM 31.6 billion in 2011 on aspects of health. In 2012, the portion of tourist receipts to the total GDP was roughly 6.5 percent, meaning that the sector contributed significantly to the economic development of the Malaysians. In other words, the statistics indicate that the health care sector, tourism sector, and economic development have a relationship. The country has made significant strides economically, primarily due to the tourism sector that attracts various types of tourists including medical tourists. As per the Malaysia Healthcare Travel Council, the three main reasons why the country attracts many tourists are; those seeking medical assistance get value for their money; holiday advantages in the region; and it is a multicultural region with great hospitality (U.N. Educations, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 2008).

In China, tourism is perceived as the best mechanism for generating foreign exchange as well as stimulating economic growth. Since the country reformed its policies, economic benefits emanating from tourism have also significantly improved. Furthermore, sporting activities such as the Beijing Olympics generated tremendous income. Holding the games brought significant economic impacts to the country as the sites made it a tourist attraction destination. The country’s economic growth that has been averaging over 10 percent have also led to a heightened average GDP growth; thus improving people’s living standards. For instance, the number of individuals living in absolute poverty declined from 50 to 10 percent. The roaring economy has also benefitted other countries such as Malaysia as the Chinese are more comfortable traveling. As per the assertions of one of the global consultancy firms; McKinsey, the country has approximately 116 million wealthy and middle-class individuals as compared to only 2 million back in 2000. As the population continues to grow, the economic impacts are bound to rise even more. Outbound visitors have been greatly assisted by the improved living standards in China (Keyang, 2013).

In 2015, the tourism industry generated more than 4 trillion yuan, typically $613.6 billion contributing over 10% to the country’s GD6+6563P thus outweighing other sectors like automobile, banking, and education. The World Travel and Tourism Council also estimated that the rates reduced to 3.9 trillion yuan ($563.6 billion). In the same year, the department logged over 4 billion visits while registering 120 million outbound tourists. The employment sector, on the other hand, accounted for 10.2% of China’s total employment. Outbound tourist visits, domestic travels, outbound and domestic tourism consumption, are regarded as the top across the globe. Furthermore, China plans to increase income from tourism to more than 7 trillion yuan by the year 2020 as per the Chinese government. The government seeks to develop tourism and make it the main economic driver. Investment in tourism is bound to increase to 2 trillion yuan with the industry expected to contribute over 12 percent of GDP as per the State Council five-year plan (Keyang, 2013).

In general, tourism results in positive aspects such as the creation of jobs. In both Malaysia and China, tourism has led to the creation and development of various projects that have impacted positively on the countries, particularly on the economic front. It also leads to the creation of small-scale business enterprises, particularly in rural regions and generates revenues from avenues like hotel and airport taxes that are used for other developments. Both China and Malaysia have benefitted economically from tourism. As illustrated by the above statistics, tourism is key the improving GDP rates in Malaysia and China. However, the two countries differ regarding the tourist attraction sites and attraction designs. A good example can be illustrated by the Great Wall in Beijing that attracts many visitors; hence, creating numerous jobs. For tourism to succeed, it is prudent to improve the infrastructure, and hence both countries strive to do the same.

Cultural Impacts of Tourism and Hospitality

The effect of culture on tourism aims to analyze the heightening relation between culture and tourism, and how the two have resulted in destination competitiveness and attractiveness. The development of the tourism sector in China, the country has also benefitted from a rising utilization of cultural and natural environment for tourism leading to tourism resources being adversely affected in various destinations. The impact of tourism regarding the cultural aspects in China can be illustrated via the ethnic communities. In other words, the impact of tourism on the native communities. In some states, tourism has resulted in modernization of the different ethnic communities. Regarding the spiritual culture, tourism has not changed the Chinese practice religion. Even with the rising tourism rates, the natives have maintained their religious beliefs; instead, the tourists tend to adopt the natives culture. The spiritual culture had transitioned through the generations without significant changes. On the other hand, material culture has changed considerably due to the general social modernization. The Chinese have changed their cultural behavior regarding materialism to embrace the present global modernization. Apart from that, modernization emanating from tourism has resulted in other cultural practices being replaced. The endogenous driving force has been replaced due to modernization. Similarly, modernization emanating from tourism results in the matter whether ethnic tourism societies can be advanced in a supportable manner contingent on both top-down and bottom-up features i.e. the foremost part played by communal leaders internally, developing valuable portions of ethnic culture as well as dispersing unusable parts in recurrent games within the tourism sector, and guidance easing planning and government policy (U.N. Educations, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 2008).

The effect of tourism on the Malaysians regarding the cultural aspects is also similar to China’s. Some communities have been modernized to the extent that their cultural backgrounds have been altered. Some have lost their cultural identity as they continue to embrace modernization. On the other hand, tourism has enlightened other groups to adopt modern behaviors positively. For instance, ethnic groups that solely depended on natural healing can still seek medical advice when the traditional treatment fails to work. The ethnic groups have been enlightened thus overcoming gender stereotypes normally cripple civilization. However, the degree of effect differs in both China and Malaysia; since the Chinese seem to adhere to their cultural behaviors more than the Malaysians. For example, most of the Chinese are more entangled on the role of women in the society. In most homes, they are restricted to the household chores as the men are indulged in the outdoor activities. Even with the heightened tourist levels, the have led to a limited impact on the gender role aspect of cultural behavior (Nekolaichuk, 2010).

Tourism has both positive and negative impacts on the cultural behaviors of China and Malaysia. Tourism in China and Malaysia is a tool to promote cultural diversity. It is the face of peace, cultural traditions, and pride. In that regard, both countries benefit from this aspect. People move across the globe to experience other cultures, and it is the reason why China is more attractive than Malaysia regarding this aspect. In other words, China has numerous cultural practices that entice visitors from across the world who wish to experience the same. On the other hand, Malaysia is more dependent on medical tourism rather than ethnic practices. Even though China is also known for medical tourism, the numerous cultural practices are primary sources of tourist attraction. Tourism also poses significant threats when it comes to clashes and displacement of local values and cultures. For instance, as more tourists flock these countries, they also heighten the levels of disrespect and cultural appropriation. The cultural practices of both Malaysians and Chinese are appropriated by the visitors leading to conflicts.


The impacts of hospitality and tourism in both China and Malaysia are almost similar regarding economics, social, and cultural aspects. The sector has led to significant economic developments in both countries. However, the gains emanating from the sector is utilized differently by the two regions. Furthermore, the attraction sites tend to differ; hence, the huge difference between Malaysia and China. China has numerous attraction sites with a unique culture that entices many visitors while Malaysia primarily relies on medical tourism. Tourism has also changed the way people socialize or undertake their cultural activities, with modernization being the major cause. The regions are important to one another, particularly since Malaysians visit China and vice versa. Furthermore, since both countries are in Asia, visitors from Europe or other regions visit both places; hence, improving them. The fact that both countries are amongst the most visited regions evidence how the regions are important to each other. In general, hospitality and tourism continue to be a bedrock of many countries striving to make substantial economic, cultural, and social progress.


Keyang, L. (2013). Economic Impact Analysis of Inbound Tourism in China: An Extended Input Model. 1-38. Retrieved from

Nekolaichuk, R. (2010). Traditional and Non-Traditional Medicine. Traditional and Non-Traditional Medicine, 1-5.

Tan Khee Giap, Sasidaran Gopalan, and Ye Ye (2016). Drivers of Growth in the Travel and Tourism Industry in Malaysia: A Geweke Causality Analysis. 1-15.

U.N. Educations, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. (2008). The Effects of Tourism on Culture and the Environment in Asia and the Pacific. 1-94. Retrieved from

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