Theories of personality by Carl Jung

Junior (College 3rd year) ・Philosophy ・APA ・2 Sources

Carl Jung is one of Freud's descendants. This dissertation will concentrate on this descendant since he was close to Sigmund Freud, who saw him as his heir-apparent in the psychoanalytic movement. Furthermore, Jung's analytic viewpoint is more current than Freud's psychoanalytic theory. Furthermore, Jung's description of the eight personality types is an outstanding contribution (Ikiugu, & Ciaravino, 2007). The principles of extraversion and introversion developed by Carl Jung are very useful and relevant today. Furthermore, Jung's description of functions such as thinking, feeling, sensing, and inferring is crucial. However, Jung came to differ with Freud on key aspects of the theory. Jung is similar to Freud in many respects. Jung acknowledged the reality of the unconscious mind and his idea of collective unconscious being human desires and instincts is the same as the ideas of the Id of Freud. Like Freud, Jung based his personality theories on the principle that the mind or psyche has both the conscious and unconscious level. The ego, which consists of the memories, emotions and thoughts, embody the conscious mind. The feelings of continuity and identity are determined by ego. Jung, like Freud, highlighted the significance of the unconscious as far as personality is concerned. Freud's idea of the unconscious is similar to Jung's personal unconscious, which contains repressed memories and forgotten information (Ikiugu, & Ciaravino, 2007). The collective unconscious consisted of traits comparable to biological characteristics. Jung held that the traits are present in human psyches prior to birth. He considered memories as the archetypes, the blueprint of reality. Archetypes are inclinations humans have to experience. Jung held that symbols from varied culture are more or less the same since they have come from archetypes that the entire human race shares (Ikiugu, & Ciaravino, 2007). Although there are many archetypes, Jung identified the persona, the animus, the self and the shadow.;

Freud considered dreams as repressed childhood experiences and memories. Jung believed that dreams are ways through which people communicate with the unconscious. Freud believed that interpretation of dreams was necessary for effective treatment. Although Jung concurred with Freud on the idea of unconscious motivation, the former did not view the unconscious as the undesirable experience. For Jung, the unconscious is storage for ""psychic material which he saw as analogous in value to gold"" (Ikiugu, & Ciaravino, 2007: 48).

Furthermore, Jung disagreed with Freud on the idea that sex contributed to psychological pathologies and disorders. Jung believed that a person creates idea which he tries to show up in him. While sex is essential, it can be the primary driving force in psychological disorders as suggested by Freudian. Freud had suggested that expressed and repressed sexuality served as the primary force shaping human behavior. His Oedipus complex and psychosexual development suggest that repressed sexual desires are the driving force (Feist, & Feist, 2009). In the Oedipus complex, Freud indicated that a boy child has a strong sexual desire toward his mother and savage resentment for a father. Jung disagreed with Freud arguing that what influences or motivates behavior is the life force. Jungle also rejected Freud's Oedipal impulses by offering that the mother-child relationship was driven by protection and lover the mother provides to the child. Main Ainsworth's Internal Working Model and John Bowlby's Attachment Theory are based on Jung's views (Ikiugu, & Ciaravino, 2007).

Although Jung was brought up as a Christian, he started to question it. Without the physical presence of God, Jung saw Holy Communion as hollow and fatal experience. For Jung, religion was a means of entering into an individual's unconscious and more or less of a myth. Jung was my favorite because his theory is very much applicable, as well as, more flexible today. More importantly, he distinguished the major attitudes of personality: extraversion and introversion.


Feist, J., & Feist, G. J. (2009). Theories of personality (7th Ed). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Ikiugu, M. N., & Ciaravino, E. A. (2007). Psychosocial conceptual practice models in occupational therapy: Building adaptive capability. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby Elsevier.

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