Traditional definitions of spirituality

Freshman (College 1st year) ・Philosophy ・APA ・2 Sources

Traditional definitions of spirituality include theological reformation aimed at restoring man's original shape as God's portrait. The concept of man as God's image was exemplified in sacred religious scriptures and by the founders of many, if not all, world religions. Spirituality is described in the modern world as the meanings and values that govern life. A current definition of spirituality is an experience of a different nature that is considered holy, such as near-death experiences (Saucier & Katarzyna, 2006, p. 1259). In the review section, the anti-thesis examines various perspectives on spirituality, such as pluralism, scientism, and modernism, as well as answering those questions that aid in a deeper understanding of spirituality.


Spiritual pluralism is the co-existence of the different religions of the world. Pluralism exhibits one or more of the following aspects:
• Acceptance that one religion is not the exclusive source of truth but other truths and values are found in other religions.
• Belief that rights of truth are equally valid for the different religions when they have mutually exclusive truth claims.
• Understanding of the fact that upon closer observation, the claims made by the different religions are actually different versions of a universal set of values taught for generations.
• Promotes unity, understanding, and co-operation of the different denominations of a particular faith.
• When the different faiths or their different denominations co-exist harmoniously.
There are over a thousand religions of the world the most commonly known ones being Baha’i faith, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, and Sikhism. The major common aspect found in each of these religions is the presence of one supreme God who is the creator of everything.
Spiritual scientism is the belief that God does not exist and view science as the only true source or reliable information concerning reality (Haught, 2008, p. 17). Many theologians both religious and non-religious ones have linked scientism to atheism claiming that they all preach on hypothetical issues. Scientism is also defined as excessive application of science by making improper scientific claims and the belief that only science offers a clear independent perspective on how the world really is.
Postmodern spiritualism refers to the view of religious values and truths in a way that is subjective to an individual’s worldview. Postmodernism questions the orthodox beliefs or religions to determine whether they are universal truths or they are a reflection of differences of power in society.


What is Prime Reality? Prime reality is defined as the ultimate truth. In a Christian context, prime reality is God the creator who is divine, triune, transcendent and sovereign. Deism terms prime reality as a God who is a creator but is not transcendent and sovereign. According to scientists and atheists, prime reality is matter.
What is the Nature of the World around You? The world around me is filled with many people from a variety of cultures and each holding a different belief system. Muslims, Christians, Jews, Buddhist, atheists, Africans, Asians, Europeans all living together and interacting daily at work, streets, parks, and even in their homes. Despite the fact that in some areas there is a peaceful co-existence among the different groups of people, there are constant wars and disagreements between the groups in places such as Syria, Israel, and Palestine to mention a few. In Syria, there are wars between the two major sects of Islam that dominate the nation and the war between Israel and Palestine is a religious war between Muslims and Christianity.
What is a Human Being? A human being is scientifically defined as any inhabitant of the world whether living or extinct belonging to the species of Homo sapiens. They characterized by bipedal movement, erect posture, and larger more complex brains than other animals.
What Happens to a person at Death? There are many opinions concerning what happens to a person once they die. According to Islam, Christianity and other religions, the person’s soul either goes to heaven or hell. Heaven is the spiritual realm where a person’s spirit is rewarded for the good works that they did while living on earth while hell is the realm where the spirit is punished for wrongs done while on earth. When the good deeds out-weigh the bad, the soul goes to heaven but when the bad deeds out-weigh the good, the person’s soul goes to hell. Each religion has different definitions of what is deemed good and acceptable or bad. People around the world have had out-of-body or near-death experiences of the above mentioned realms but there is no scientific evidence to support either of them.
Why is it Possible to Know Anything at all? It is possible to have knowledge anything because of the human ability to learn and remember. Each individual has a different rate at which they learn and forget therefore the ability to know anything differs from person to person. Religions believe that God is the only source of knowledge and understanding while the non-religious belief is that knowledge is obtained from constant study and research.
How do People Know What is Right or Wrong? The set of values that people live by are derived from religious doctrines, traditional teachings, political governance and general upbringing. The different religions have sets of rules and beliefs that their believers are expected to follow for example Christians are to treat others with kindness, and Baha’is are taught to regard people of all other religions and belief systems with respect. The law that governs a country of region informs its citizens the kind of behavior that is wrong and may attract punishment as well as what is the right and proper way to behave. Children are taught by their parents what is right or wrong according to their culture and environment in which they live.
What is the Meaning of Human History? Human history refers to the origin of man in all the different aspects. Human history seeks to explain where man came from, how we developed into the kind of human beings we are today. Human history also gives insight into how the different races, cultures, tribes, languages, kingdoms, and countries came into existence.


Haught, J. (2008). God and the New Atheism. In A Critical Response to Dawkins, Harris, and Hitchens (p. 17).

Westminister: John Knox Press. Saucier, G., & Katarzyna, S. (2006). Spiritual but Not Religious? Evidence for Two Independent Dispositions. Journal of Personality

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