Anaphylaxis Case Study

Junior (College 3rd year) ・Education ・APA ・15 Sources

This is a medical case study which involves a 53-year-old farmer named Jim who was diagnosed with an anaphylaxis condition. The condition arose after Jim was administered with two doses of Flucloxacillin which were meant to suppress a bacterium causing Cellulitis. Cellulitis is an infection caused by bacteria and reveals itself in the form of a swollen area which appears red in color and is tender and hot to touch. The analysis of Jim’s condition is to be carried out using the ABCDE approach to examine the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis which he was exhibiting. The ABCDE strategy will also be implemented to determine the physiological changes and parapsychological transformation experienced by Jim’s body after the infection. The ISBAR approach will be employed to recommend necessary medical equipment to treat Jim and to suggest the most appropriate interventions and therapy that should be administered to stabilize his condition. (Khan & Kemp, 2011).

ABCDE Case Study Analysis


On ringing the bell, Jim complained of experiencing a tight feeling from the inner part of his throat. A physical examination had to be performed on Jim to establish the cause of the tight feeling in his throat. The examination revealed that Jim had asymmetric chest movements which left him struggling to draw air in and out of his body. When Jim was asked to take a deep breath, a hoarse sound was heard from his lungs. Jim was asked to breathe through a spirometer which indicated that his rate of respiration had risen from the normal range of 12-20 bpm to 26 bpm. This further affirmed his respiratory track was clogged. According to Craft et al. (2016), the chocking and obstruction feeling that Jim was experiencing in his throat is a major symptom of anaphylaxis which is caused by the spasm of bronchi and the swelling of the throat, lips, or tongue.


Jim was seen to be breathless when the physician arrived after the bell ring. The physician observed that Jim had bilateral chest movements, and the depth of his breathing was getting shallow. He was noted to be using the accessory muscle for breathing which was causing him to suffer from tachypnoea (Panesar & Sheikh, 2014). These were clear signs that Jim was not breathing normally, and his level of drawing breath was dwindling rendering him breathless. Therefore, little oxygen was going into his body to sustain his organs. The inability to breathe was also evident from an audible wheeze which was emanating from Jim’s respiratory system. According to Estes & Schaefer (2016), the symptom occurs due to the constriction in the smooth muscles of the lower airways. As a result of inadequate oxygen reaching the body tissues, a condition known as hypoxia, Jim became dizzy and sulked.


When Jim’s blood pressure was examined using a sphygmomanometer, it was observed to have dropped from 120mmHg to 99mmHg. Therefore, Jim was suffering from hypotension as a result of his body’s allergen reaction (Metcalfe, Peavy, & Gilfillan, 2009). This was leading to hypoxia which was reducing Jim’s level of consciousness and causing to feel weak, drowsy, and drained. The physician also examined Jim’s heart-beat rate using a stethoscope and observed that his heart-beat rate had risen to 130bpm which was above the normal heart-beat (Robson-Ansley & Du Toit, 2010). This confirmed that Jim was experiencing tachycardia which is a common sign of anaphylaxis. Jim’s blood glucose was also examined through a BSGM (Blood Sugar Glucose Meter), and it was observed to have dropped from the normal 7.8mmol/l to 5.3mmol/l. This was attributed to the anaphylactic shock which was limiting blood circulation and oxygen deficiency due to difficulty in breathing. Jim was experiencing anaphylactic shock which increased his capillary refill time from the normal (less than) <2 seconds to (greater than) >4 seconds after pressure was removed. This caused him to feel lightheaded. The anaphylactic shock caused Jim’s peripherals to get cold and clammy (Castells, 2010). According to Higashi et al. (2010), inadequate oxygen into Jim’s bloodstream and poor blood circulation resulted into a blueish discoloration of his skin around his fingers and toes, a condition known as cyanosis. Jim was also experiencing dizziness and loss of consciousness due to dilation in blood vessels which was caused by the drop-in blood pressure. Low blood pressure was also responsible for tachycardia and the drop-in glucose level in Jim’s blood stream (Castells, 2010).


Jim was seen to be falling drowsy and his level of consciousness was drastically reducing. He was also suffocating due to difficulty in breathing which was rendering him breathless. The physician assessed Jim’s level of consciousness using the AVPU approach to determine his responsiveness (Higashi et al., 2010). Jim was discovered to be awake, but his level of alertness was dwindling as the allergic reaction continued to spread throughout his body system. The physician observed Jim’s eyes through an ophthalmoscope and observed that the size of Jim’s pupils had shrunk, and the pupils are not of the same size in both eyes. Jim’s pupils had become sensitive to light as he quivered when his eyes met the light of the ophthalmoscope. His eyelids were sullen and dehydrated. However, Jim was observed to be responsive to verbal stimuli since he was seen to follow verbal instructions from the physician. The physician later applied supra-orbital pressure on Jim’s supraorbital notch to test for his level of response to pain stimuli. It was observed that Jim’s supra-orbital nerves were not fully responding to pain stimuli as he was seen to remain still when little pain was imposed on him. In order to fully assert Jim’s level of consciousness, the physician finally applied the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) (Stone et al., 2009). Jim motor response was seen mild and he was seen to stay localized to pain stimuli. The reduction in Jim’s level of consciousness is a common symptom of anaphylaxis which is brought about by hypoxia. Metcalfe, Peavy, and Gilfillan (2009) assert that due to hypotension which is also common in cases of anaphylaxis, Jim suffered from cyanosis which caused his peripherals to become clammy and cold making him unresponsive to touch stimuli. The drop in Jim’s blood pressure caused dilation in his blood vessels which reduced blood circulation to his organs making him drowsy and causing a drop in his level of consciousness.


The physician observed that Jim’s skin was flushed, and there was an urticarial rash that was spreading throughout his body. Due to the flushed condition, Jim’s skin was felt to be hot, thereby, rising his general body temperature to 37.4°C (Khan & Kemp, 2011). The physician helped to relieve Jim off some of his heavy clothing in order to contain his rise of body temperature. Since Jim was already in the hospital he was helped into some light patient robes and put in an airconditioned room of the hospital to further calm his body temperature. Jim was observed to be developing an itch throughout his body since he was reaching out to different parts of his body to make a scratch. According to Panesar and Sheikh (2014), the flash and the itching effect on Jim’s skin are also prevalent symptoms of anaphylaxis which are brought about by the allergic reaction of the body to antigens of foreign antibodies when the body is acting to counter them.

ISBAR Framework for the Case Study


I am a nursing student in third year of college, my role involves working as a medical physician dealing with a case study of a patient suffering from Anaphylaxis.


Jim is observed to be flushed, and a spreading urticarial rush is evident on his skin. This has been accompanied by a rise in body temperature to 37.4°C. Jim is complaining of a chocking feeling in his throat which is obstructing him from breathing freely. When Jim’s rate of respiration is measured using a spirometer, it is observed to be 26 bpm which is above the normal rate. There has been evidence of swelling on Jim’s lips and fingers and a bluish discoloration around his peripherals due to cyanosis. The depth of Jim’s breathing is seen to be dwindling and an audible wheezing sound is heard while he breathes. It is observed that he has bilateral chest movements and is employing accessory muscles to breathe. His heart rate, when measured using a stethoscope, is observed to have risen to 130 bpm. Jim levels of consciousness is seen to be reducing making him dizzy and drowsy (Robson-Ansley & Du Toit, 2010).


Jim Palmer, a 53-year-old farmer, is admitted to the hospital for suffering from severe cellulitis on the lower part of his left leg. On arrival at the hospital Jim was received at the emergency department and was administered with a single dose of 1gram flucloxacillin IV to kill the bacteria which have caused the infection. After a short while, Jim was administered with another dose of flucloxacillin to further ease the severity of the infection. Ten minutes later after the injection, Jim’s body reacts to the medication and suffers from an anaphylactic shock.


Jim is allergic to chemicals contained in Flucloxacillin drug, therefore, his body became hypersensitive and his immune system overreacted, hence, producing antibodies to suppress allergens of chemicals contained in Flucloxacillin. According Estes & Schaefer (2016), this is one of the side effects of Flucloxacillin where patients may develop allergies which often translate to anaphylaxis.


According to Simons (2011), the doctor should administer a quick injection of epinephrine. To clear Jim’s airway, the doctor should administer airway opening maneuvers, and airway suction to try clearing Jim’s windpipe (Clark, Rudders, & Camargo, 2014). In case that fails, the doctor should insert a nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal airway to help Jim breath comfortably. In the event Jim’s conditions worsens, a tracheal intubation should be administered (Simons, 2010). Jim should be administered with an oxygen reservoir mask, if his SpO2 is below 94%, to provide him with sufficient flow of oxygen into his body system. (Clark, Rudders, Camargo, 2014). Since Jim’s rate of breathing and blood circulation was dropping, it is recommended that he is given a pocket mask ventilation or a bag mask ventilation to help improve ventilation and oxygenation in his capillaries (Song, Worm, & Lieberman, 2014). In case Jim’s throat is chocking is extreme, a non-invasive ventilation technique may be considered in place of tracheal intubation. Since Jim was found to be hypotensive, he should be administered with a warm crystalloid solution using a 500Ml bolus at continuous intervals while reassessing his blood pressure and heartrate after every 5 minutes (Song, Worm, & Lieberman, 2014). In case Jim is seen to develop an ACS and a chest pain, a 12-lead ECG should be recorded immediately. It is very advisable to assess if Jim has suffered from hypoglycemia by measuring the level of his blood glucose again (Simons, & World Allergy Organization, 2010).


Castells, M. C. (Ed.). (2010). Anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity reactions. Springer Science & Business Media.

Clark, S., Wei, W., Rudders, S. A., & Camargo, C. A. (2014). Risk factors for severe anaphylaxis in patients receiving anaphylaxis treatment in US emergency departments and hospitals. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 134(5), 1125-1130.

Craft, J., Gordon, C., Huether, S. E., McCance, K. L., Brashers, V. L., (2016) Understanding Pathophysiology 2nd edition. Australia, Australia: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Estes, M. E. Z. & Schaefer, K. P. (2016) Health Assessment and Physical Examination 5th edition. Virginia, Virginia: Cengage Learning, Inc.

Higashi, N., Mita, H., Ono, E., Fukutomi, Y., Yamaguchi, H., Kajiwara, K., ... & Taniguchi, M. (2010). Profile of eicosanoid generation in aspirin-intolerant asthma and anaphylaxis assessed by new biomarkers. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 125(5), 1084-1091.

Khan, B. Q., & Kemp, S. F. (2011). Pathophysiology of anaphylaxis. Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology, 11(4), 319-325.

Metcalfe, D. D., Peavy, R. D., & Gilfillan, A. M. (2009). Mechanisms of mast cell signaling in anaphylaxis. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 124(4), 639-646.

Panesar, S. S., & Sheikh, A. (2014). Pathophysiology of Anaphylaxis. In Encyclopedia of Medical Immunology (pp. 557-558). Springer New York.

Robson-Ansley, P., & Du Toit, G. (2010). Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology, 10(4), 312-317.

Sheikh, A., Shehata, Y. A., Brown, S. G. A., & Simons, F. E. R. (2009). Adrenaline for the treatment of anaphylaxis: Cochrane systematic review. Allergy, 64(2), 204-212.

Simons, F. (2011). Anaphylaxis pathogenesis and treatment. Allergy, 66(s95), 31-34.

Simons, F. E. R. (2010). Pharmacologic treatment of anaphylaxis: can the evidence base be strengthened? Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology, 10(4), 384-393.

Simons, F. E. R., & World Allergy Organization. (2010). World Allergy Organization survey on global availability of essentials for the assessment and management of anaphylaxis by allergy-immunology specialists in health care settings. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 104(5), 405-412.

Song, T. T., Worm, M., & Lieberman, P. (2014). Anaphylaxis treatment: current barriers to adrenaline auto‐injector use. Allergy, 69(8), 983-991.

Stone, S. F., Cotterell, C., Isbister, G. K., Holdgate, A., Brown, S. G., & Emergency Department Anaphylaxis Investigators. (2009). Elevated serum cytokines during human anaphylaxis: identification of potential mediators of acute allergic reactions. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 124(4), 786-792.

Get a price
Academic level
Pages *275 words
Total price
$ 0 .00
$ 0 .00

Prices that are easy on your wallet

Our experts are ready to do an excellent job starting at $14.99 per page

What Clients Say About Us
Our Customers Rated UsGreat
Out of 5 Based on 357 Reviews
I experienced difficult times trying to complete huge number of assignments to my university at the same time and you, guys, literally saved me. Everything was done in time and on the highest level! I really appreciate your help.
Essay, History, 12 pages, 7 days, Master's
First time when I placed an order with you, I just lacked time to do all the homework and it was a lot going on in my family. But today I’m doing it sometimes just for fun – I really enjoy communicating with your Customer Support members and just letting myself being a bit lazy
Yuong Lo Mui,
Literature review, IT, 17 pages, 4 days, Master's
My GPA is 4.0 and I’ve always been doing everything myself, but there is a class which I was about to fail thus my GPA would decrease first time in so many years. I ordered few assignments to be completed with and you did a great job! Thanks to you I still remain one of the best students on campus.
Essay, Politics, 8 pages, 5 days, Junior
I am not used to such services and I usually write all the papers by myself. But this time I got in a very difficult situation and had to order my paper on this website. To my surprise it appeared to be quite good. Thank you, it is really nice service. Think I'll get back to you soon!
Thesis, Management, 34 pages, 14 days, Master's
I am on my maternity leave now, so I spend a lot of time at home taking care of my little son. I’ve decided to get one more higher education degree while I’m spending so much time at home and applied for distance learning in one online college. But caring a baby takes even more time then I excepted so I’m the way too busy to write the complicated masters level research works, but is so-so-so cool! Thank you for that you exist! I don’t know what I would do without you all!
Essay, Education, 15 pages, 8 days, Master's
I am studying and working at the same time and it is difficult to cope with university assignments as I am very tired after the work day. You service is a salvation for me as it helps to do everything on time. I am really happy about it. Wish you everything the best! Especially my lovely writer 109!
Coursework, Religion, 11 pages, 7 days, Master's

We at

work according to the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which means you have the control over your personal data. All payment transactions go through a secure online payment system, thus your Billing information is not stored, saved or available to the Company in any way. Additionally, we guarantee confidentiality and anonymity all throughout your cooperation with our Company.

Try our service with 15% Discount for your first order!   Try our service with 15% Discount for your first order!   Try our service with 15% Discount for your first order!  

Order Now